Perbedaan Antara Past Perfect dengan Present Perfect

belajar bahasa inggris

Berikut kami sajikan perbedaan antara kalimat bentuk Past Perfect dengan Present Perfect. Kami juga masukkan perbedaan antara 
Present Perfect Continuous Tense dengan Past Perfect Continuous Tense. Sebagian bahan kami sarikan dari buku Practical English Grammar (AJ Thompson & AV Martinet).Semoga berfaedah untuk mempelajari bahasa Inggris.  



Baik “Past Perfect” maupun “Present Perfect”, keduanya sama-sama memaparkan tentang sesuatu yang terjadi sebelum satu titik waktu/ titik acuan (reference point


Past                                  Present                                                  Future


Dalam “Present Perfect”, titik acuannya adalah sekarang (present).

“I Have been to Japan twice”


Past          twice                    Present                                    Future


Dalam “past perfect”, titik acuannya adalah masa lalu (past).

“I had been to Japan twice by the time i was 10 years old”


Past     twice       10              Present (28 years old)              Future

                                    years old



·       Suatu tindakan yang dimulai di masa lalu dan terus sampai sekarang.

Contoh: I have lived in this city for six months

_________ I I I I I I____________I___________________________

Past          6 months                Present                                    Future

(is living in the city)


·       Suatu tindakan yang telah terjadi dengan waktu yang tidak dijelaskan

Contoh: I have been to Japan twice


Past          twice                    Present                                    Future


Rumus: HAVE / HAS + past participle

Contoh:         My mother has just gone to the store.

                     Janet has lived abroad for five years.

                     I haven’t seen the new movie yet.   

Have you finished your homework?


Biasanya digunakan ‘ve dan ‘s dalam present perfect:

I’ve been to Japan three times.

                    My mother’s just gone to the store.

                    Janet’s lived abroad for five years.



Suatu tindakan yang telah terjadi sebelum suatu waktu di masa lalu

“When I arrived at the office this morning, I discovered that I had left my computer on the night before


      Past             the night             this            Present                                Future

                          Before            morning        


Rumus: HAD + past participle

Contoh:    I had been to Japan twice by the time I was 10 years old.

                 Terdapat dua info:       1. I went to Japan in 1988 and 1991 (twice).

                                                     2. I turned 10 years old in 1994.


When I woke up this morning, my husband had already eaten breakfast.

1.    My husband ate breakfast at 6:00 AM

2.    I woke up at 7:00 AM (this morning)


Biasanya digunakan ‘d dalam Past Perfect:

I’d traveled to five different countries by the time I was 20 years old




Present Perfect Continuous Tense VS Past Perfect Continuous Tense

I’ve been working                      VS                 I’d been working


I’ve been working at RCTI for 5 years


Supposing i go for interview today and they ask me: How long have you been working at RCTI? The answer means I started 5 years ago and still working at RCTI 

Time line:

2011                                                 2016


                                                 Still going




I’d been working at RCTI for 5 years


Supposing I’ve already resigned from RCTI and im not working curenntly. So in the interview they ask: how long had you been working at your previous company?


We use “had” instead of “have” because the action started in the past/ had continuity in the past and finished sometime in the past while we talk about it now


Time line:

2010                           2015             2016


                          resigned                    talk

                                              about it now



I’m angry. I’ve been waiting for 2 hours


It happened recently. Right now I’m waiting for someone and he finally shows up. So I say the sentece. The action started 2 hours ago (let say: 2 pm) then he (Joni) shows up (at 4 pm), so say the sentence .


I was angry. I’d been waiting for 2 hours


Same situation, but this time I talk about what happened (yesterday, 2 days ago, etc) to another friend: I was anggry with Joni because I’d been waiting for him for 2 hours.

I use “had been” because I talk about what happened yesterday or two days ago with range of hour:  2 pm - 4 pm [finished]. The duration has finished long time ago and I talk about it now.



It has been raining since last night

This morning when I watch the news it says the sentence. The rain started last night until now (this morning) and its still raining.


The road was wet. It had been raining for many hours

I talk about last night’s (two days ago, etc) rain but it stop raining now. It might stopped just before dawn, or probably it happened the whole day yesterday/ two days ago, etc. But it bright sunny day now. The road is also dry now.




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