Featured Post

Rice Cooker Hilangkan Puluhan Kosakata Sunda

Image
Tantangan pelestarian dan pengembangan bahasa salahsatunya adalah istilah bahasa asing. Hanya satu kata asing saja sudah bisa menggusur puluhan kosakata satu bahasa daerah. Demikian Kepala Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa Dadang Sunendar sampaikan dalam Kuliah Tamu Leksikografi: Lanskap Leksikografis Tahun 2018 dan Perihal Penyusunan Kamus Mutakhir” , Aula Sasadu, Gedung Samudra, Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Jakarta (3/5/18).    

Penjelasan dan Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense

 

belajar bahasa inggris

Berikut kami sampaikan macam-macam penggunaan dan contoh kalimat present perfect tense. Bahan ini disarikan dari buku Practical English Grammar (AJ Thompson & AV Martinet). Semoga bermanfaat untuk belajar bahasa Inggris.  


PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Kegunaan:

  1. Digunakan bersama “ just” untuk menunjukkan aktivitas yang baru saja terjadi

He has just gone out = he went out a few minutes ago (simple past)

Adapun bentuk interogatif (pertanyaan) digunakan untuk minta kepastian:

Has he just gone out? = was it true that he we went out a few minutes ago?

  1. Digunakan untuk menginfokan aktivitas lampau di saat ini tanpa keterangan waktu

I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them

Have you had breakfast? No, I Haven’t had it yet

Bandingkan dengan bentuk “simple past”:

 I  read the instructions last night (dengan keterangan waktu)

Did you have breakfast at the hotel? (pilhan pengganti keterangan tempat: before you left the hotel?)   

Present perfect bentuk pertanyaan:

              Have you seen my stamps? Yes I have/ No,I haven’t

Jawaban berbentuk simple past:  Yes I saw them on your desk a  minute ago

Have you had breakfast? Yes, I have/ No, I haven’t  had it yet

Jawaban berbentuk simple past:  Yes, I had it at seven o clock

                                                            Yes, I had it with Mary

“Had” di sini bukan auxiliary verb melainkan main verb

 

  1. Digunakan untuk menceritakan aktivitas masa lalu yang kemungkinan bisa terjadi lagi

I have seen wolves in that forest

Seno Gumira Ajidarma has written a number of short stories

Namun jika hutan sudah berubah jadi hutan konservasi dan sudah tidak ada lagi hewan liar, atau si penulis sudah wafat,bentuknya jadi:

I saw wolves in that forest once/ several times,  atau I used to see wolves there

       Seno Gumira Ajidarma wrote a number of short stories

  1. Digunakan bersama adverb lately, recently, never, ever

There have been a lot of changes recently

I’ve been very busy lately

Have you ever seen a wolf? No, I’ve never seen one

Have you ever made bread? Yes, I made some last week (past tense)

  1. Disampaikan di rentang waktu tertentu, di mana aktivitas tersebut sudah terjadi dan mungkin terjadi lagi, selama rentang waktu masih ada (digunakan bersama  keterangan waktu: this morning/ afternoon/ evening/ week/ month/ year/ today)

Badu has rung three times this morning already (disampaikan di bawah jam jam 11)

Gunakan simple past jika rentang waktu tertentu sudah selesai: Badu rang three times this morning (si Badu sudah telfon total sebanyak tiga kali pagi ini, disampaikan di atas jam 11)

I haven’t seen Badu this afternoon (disampaikan di atas jam 3, sebelum jam 5 sore)

I didn’t se Badu  this afternoon (disampaikan di atas jam 5 sore, sebelum maghrib)

Have you seen him today? Yes, i have? Yes I have seen  him today (disampaikan  kapanpun di sepanjang hari ini)

Namun jika sesuatu yang seharusnya rutin terjadi, seperti bunyi weker, alarm, ternyata tidak terjadi, digunakan bentuk simple past:

My alarm clock didn’t go off this morning (alarm telah disetel jam 6 pagi, disampaikan di atas jam 6 pagi)

Jika tukang sayur datang antara jam 9 hingga 10 pagi: Has the vegetable seller come yet? this morning?  Namun jik”a sudah lewat jam 10 pagi: Did the vegetable seller come this morning?

  1. Digunakan bersama “yet” dalam kalimat pertanyaan dan negatif:

Has the vegetable seller come yet? No, She hasn’t come yet. We are still expecting her

 

------------------------------------------

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (2)

 

KEGUNAAN:

DENGAN KETERANGAN WAKTU

  1. Untuk aktivitas lampau dan masih berlanjut

He has been in the army for two years (He is still in the army)

I have smoked since I left school ( I still smoke)

He has lived here all his life (He still lives here)

I have never seen an armadillo ( I still wait for that moment)

I have always written with my left hand ( i am a left-handed)

Bandingkan dengan:

He was in the army for two years (He is not in the army now)

I smoked for six months (and then i stopped smoking)

He lived here all his life (presumably he is now dead)

 

  1. Untuk aktivitas yang dimulai di masa lampau dan selesai begitu kini dibicarakan

I havent seen you for ages (but I see you now)

This room hasn’t been cleaned for months (but we are cleaning  it now)

It has been a very cold lately but it’s beginning to get a bit warmer

 

  1. Dengan format: it is +rentang waktu+since+past tense atau present perfect

It is three years since I (last) saw Bambang || bisa diubah: I saw Bambang  three years ago (past tense)

Atau It is three years since I have seen Bambang || bisa diubah: I haven’t seen  Bambang for three years  (present perfect)

Contoh lain:

It is  two months since Temon (last) smoked a cigarette || He last smoked a cigarette two months ago

It is two months since Temon has smoked a cigarette || He hasn’t smoked a cigarette for two months

It was two years since I had ridden a horse || I hadn’t ridden a horse for two years

  1. Kalimat dengan “ever”, “the first”, “the second”, “the only”, etc

 

This is the best wine I have ever drunk

This is the worst book I have ever read

This is the easiest job I have ever had

 

It/ This is the first time I have seen a theatrical band

Its is only the second time he has been in a canoe

This is the only film he has directed

 

  1. Percakapan  tentang aktivitas lampau sering dimulai dengan pertanyaan dan jawaban dalam bentuk “present perfect” yang berlanjut dalam bentuk “simple past”  

 

A: Where have you been? (present perfect)

B: I’ve been to the XXI (present perfect)

A: What was the movie? (simple past)

B: “Deadpool”      

A: Did you like it/ did you have a good seat/ was the theater crowded? (simple past)

 

Husband: Where have you been?

Wife: I’ve been to Slipi Jaya

H: What have you bought/ What did you buy?

W: I have bought/ I bought you some yellow pyjamas

H: Why did you buy yellow? I told you never to buy yellow for me

W: I couldn’t resist it. They were very much reduced (big discount)

 

  

  1. Digunakan dalam awal narasi berita, siaran, dan dilanjutkan dalam “simple past”

Paris Hilton's Malibu home has been burglarized for seventh times. From 2008 to 2009, a group of teens known as "the bling ring" allegedly stole more than $2 million worth of jewelry from the star, in addition to a number of designer outfits. One member even tried to dognap one of Hilton's many pets. Their alleged crimes were chronicled in director Sofia Coppola's June 2013 movie, “The Bling Ring”.

President Joko  Widodo and House of Representatives leaders have agreed to postpone the discussion of proposed revisions of the 2002 Law on Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK). The decision came after Jokowi met with House' speakers and chairs of political factions and commissions at the State Palace on Monday afternoon.

 

  1. Digunakan dalam penulisan surat

I am sorry I haven’t written for such a long time, but I’ve been very busy lately as my partner has been away and i have had to do his work as well as my own.

My colleagues and I have carefully considered the important issues raised in the report which you sent me on April 26, and we have decided to take the fllowing action

Popular posts from this blog

Tangkas SEO dan Cerdas Keuangan

Rice Cooker Hilangkan Puluhan Kosakata Sunda

Kembalinya Satu Paket Kocak di Film Preman Pensiun